Copper and copper alloys constitute one of the major groups of commercial metals. They are widely used because of their excellent electrical and thermal conductivities, outstanding resistance to corrosion, ease to fabrication, and good strength and fatigue resistance. They are generally nonmagnetic. They can be plated, coated with organic substances, or chemical colored further extend the variety of available finishes.
Pure copper is used extensively for cables and wires, electrical contacts, and a wide variety of other parts that are required to pass electrical current. Coppers and certain brasses, bronzes, and cupronickels are used extensively for automobile radiators heat exchangers, home heating system, panels for absorbing solar energy, and various applications requiring rapid conduction of heat across or along a metal section. Because of their outstanding ability to resist corrosion, coppers brasses, some bronzes, and cupronickels are used for pipes, valves, and fitting systems carrying potable water, process water, or other aqueous fluids.
In all classes of copper alloys, certain alloy combinations for